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Marshall’s three elements of Citizenship

March 16, 2012
“Much […] contemporary scholarship on inequality and citizenship builds on Marshall’s (1950) classic formulation of citizenship, which conceptualizes citizenship as having ‘three’ elements’: civil, political and social. Civil citizenship includes civil rights, such as the right to free speech and the right to own property. Political citizenship includes the right to participate in politics, as a voter and as an office holder. Social citizenship includes ‘the right to a modicum of economic welfare and security’ and Marshall goes on to state: ‘The institutions most closely conected with [social citizenship] are the educational system and the social services’ (Marshall, 1950: 11). Social citizenship may be interpreted as consisting of entitlements to social benefits, particularly health care, income security and housing.

Children’s citizenship has remained largely invisible until recently and scholars have just begun to examine children’s citizenship and how it relates to existing conceptions of citizenship regarding rights, responsiblities, identiy and participation (Cockburn, 1998; Elbers, 1996; Jans, 2004; Kulynych, 2001). There are numerous challenges in deciding which aspects of adult citizenship apply to children, in which contexts and with what outcomes. Children have ‘partial citizenship’ largely because of their legal and social dependence upon adults (Bulmer and Rees, 1996).” (13)

Ref: Valerie Leiter, Jennifer Lutzy McDonald and Heather T. Jacobson (2006) ‘Challenges to children’s independent citizenship: immigration, family and the state’ Childhood 13: 11-27

Referring to:

Marshall, T.H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bulmer, M. and A.M. Rees (1996) ‘Conclusion: Citizenship in the Twenty-First Century’, in M. Bulmer and A.M. Rees (eds) Citizenship Today: The Contemporary Relevance of T.H. Marshall, pp. 269-97. Bristol, PA: UCL Press

Cockburn, T. (1998) ‘Children and Citizenship in Britain: A Case for a Socially Interdependent Model of Citizenship’, Childhood 5: 99-117

Elbers, E. (1996) ‘Citizenship in the Making: Themes of Citizenship in Children’s Pretend Play,’ Childhood 3: 499-514

Jans, M. (2004) ‘Children as Citizens: Towards a Contemporary Notion of Child Participation’, Childhood 11: 27-44

Kulynych, J. (2001) ‘No playing in the public sphere: democratic theory and the exclusion of children’, Social Theory and Practice 27: 231-64

Other references that look interesting:

Bartholet, E. (1999) Family bonds: adoption, infertility and the new world of child production. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Bulmer, M and AM Rees (1996) ‘Conclusion: Citizenship in the twenty-first century’, in M Bulmer and AM REes (eds) Citizenship Today: The contemporary relevance of TH Marshall, pp. 269-97. Bristol, PA: UCL Press.

Cox, R.H. (1998) ‘The consequences of Welfare Reform: how conceptions of social rights are changin’ Journal of social policy 27: 1-16

Fix, M. and L. Laglaron (2002) Social Rights nad Citizenship: An International Comparison. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Fraser, N. and L. Gordon (1993) ‘Contract Versus Charity: Why is there no social citizenship in the United States?’ Socialist Review 22: 45-67

Glenn, E. (2000) ‘Citizenship and Inequality: Historical and Global Perspectives’ Social Problems 47: 1-20

Glenn, E. (2002) Unequal Freedom: How race and gender shaped American citizenship and labor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Gray, MJ, E. Rolph and E Melamid (1996) Immigration and Higher Education: Institutional Responses to changing demographics. Santa Monica, Ca: RAND Center for REsearch on Immigration Policy

Hammar, T. (1990) Democracy and the Nation-State: Aliens, Denizens and Citizens in a world of international Migration. Aldershot: Avebury

Hernandez, DJ and E Charney (eds) (1998) From Generation to Generation: The Health and Wellbeing of Children in Immigrant Families. Washington, DC: National Academy Oress

Jacobson, D. (1996) Rights across borders: Immigration and the decline of citizenship. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press

Kahn, AJ and SB Kamerman (2002) ‘Social exclusion: a better way to think about childhood deprivation?’ in AJ Kahn and SB Kamerman (eds) Beyond child poverty: the social exclusion of children. New York: The Institute for Child family policy at Columbia University.

Makrinioti, D. (1994) ‘Conceptualization of childhood in a welfare state: a critical appraisal’ in J Qvortup, M. Bardy, G. Sgrita and H Winterberger (eds) Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice and Polit6ics, pp267-83 Avebury: Aldershot.

Mann, Michael (1987) ‘Ruling class strategies and citizenship’, Sociology 21: 339-54

Pertman, A. (2000) Adoption Nation: How the adoption revolution is transforming America. New York: Basic Books

Portes, A. and D. MacLeod (1996) ‘Educational Progress of children of immigrants: the roles of class, ethnicity, and school context’, Sociology of Education 69: 255-75

Roche, J. (1999) ‘Children: rights, participation and citizenship’, Childhood 6: 475-93

Soysal, YN (1994) Limits of citizenship: Migrants and postnational membership in Europe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Soysal, YN (1998) ‘Toward a postnational model of membership’, in G. Shafir (ed) The Citizenship Debates: A Reader, pp. 189-217. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Turner, BS (1990) ‘Outline of a theory of citizenship’ Sociology 24: 189-217

Turner, BS (1993) ‘Contemporary Problems in the theory of Citizenship’, in BS Turner (ed.) Citizenship and Social Theory, pp. 1-19. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Walby, S. (1994) ‘Is citizenship gendered?’, Sociology 28: 379-439


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