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It was in land warfare that they memorialised the conflict

Random but interesting…

In a letter to the editor, Mike Pinchen refers to a BBC History Magazine (July, 2013) article titled ‘Where History Happened’ and quotes from it, writing:

“the war at sea often lacked the… very high casualties that marked the land battles. For many British Communities it was, therefore, the army that swallowed local men, and it was in land warfare terms that they memorialised the conflict.”

He goes on to discuss briefly the impact ship losses had on the communities in their home ports, but this comment on the pre-eminence of land warfare in the memorialisation of conflict is thought-provoking.

ref: Mike Pinchen ‘Naval war memorial’ p.18, letters, p.18-19 BBC History September 2013

All writing is political

All writing is political. To assert that it’s not is political. If your politics is mainstream, it’s invisible. If it’s on the fringe and based on what you referred to earlier as the politics of difference, then it’s ‘visible’ and suddenly political, and ‘aesthetics’ – which are also political! – can suddenly be compromised.”
~ Selina Tusitala Marsh (speaking to Witi Ihimaera)

Ref: p.291 ‘Witi Ihimaera: Interviewed by Selina Tusitala Marsh, pp.284-305 in Words Chosen Carefully: New Zealand Writers in Discussion pp.108-133, Ed. Siobhan Harvey. Cape Catley Ltd: Auckland 2010

Global Voice; Local Release

In a brief essay, some 10 years ago, Margaret Mahy explored the situation of writing fiction from New Zealand to both New Zealanders and the world (a topic she returned to regularly). She begins this discussion with an 1891 quote by Kate McCosh Clark, then goes on to explain what this quote highlights of the New Zealand scene for her. Mahy wrote (and quoted):

[McCosh Clark:] “The scenes of Christmas tales read by English-speaking children have been for the most part naturally laid amid winter, snow, and leafless landscape. The Yule-log and the holly-berry have been time-honoured “properties.” But there are, growing up under the Southern Cross, generations of children, with English speech and English hearts, to whom the Yule-log at Christmas is unmeaning and the snow unknown.”

[Mahy:] “The author of this assertion was Kate McCosh Clark in her New Zealand children’s book A Southern Cross Fairy Tale, published in 1891. It’s worth mentioning because it reveals that the search for an adequate New Zealand identity in children’s books is over a hundred years old, and because simply declaring that children should find their wider identities affirmed by the stories they read does not necessarily ensure that reflection automatically takes place.
New Zealand is a country looking energetically inward, defining and redefining its own identity, yet simultaneously longing to be recognized by the wider world. So the recent success of the film Whale Rider leads to a curious mood of local self-congratulation. See! We too, just by being who we are, can be up there with the best – a mood that is currently encouraged by curiosity from the outside world. Whale Rider! Amazing! What else is going on in New Zealand?
Whale Rider exemplifies oddities that attend books in general and the New Zealand situation in particular….” (italics in original, p.213)

Whale Rider focuses attention on the curious situation of children’s literature in new Zealand: writers must produce stories that offer imaginative dimension to local children leading local lives, but it is advantageous if those writers also speak with global voices, thereby increasing their chances of making a reasonable living and buying time to write again. There is resistance in the United States and the United Kingdom to books embodying background and idiom other than their own. “Our readers will be alienated by the difference,” editors can declare (though admittedly we have progressed past the stage when British editors used to ask me not to mention summer Christmases since the paradox might confuse their readers, though there was no suggestion that stories featuring a winter Christmas might confuse ours).” (p.214)

Whale Rider is a story by a Maori novelist, a story with an essentially Maori essence made available to the world through European technology.” (p.214) [Mahy went on to discuss Maori literature further, but I do find this particular sentence provocative.]

Ref: Margaret Mahy ‘Looking Inward, Exploring Outward’ The Horn Book Magazine March/April 2004 pp.213-218

An interesting project

In that same interview with Selina Tusitala Marsh that I have been referring to a lot recently, Witi Ihimaera refers to an interesting project of his:

“As I become cleverer at this business, I’m trying to involve in my work more from the Maori inventory. For instance, there’s so much in Maori waiata that is unexplored by our writers. Who reads Nga Moteatea Volumes 1, 2 and 3 other than Maori language specialists? I’m trying to bring more of that material, which is as beautiful as Shakespearean sonnets, into the written Maori literature in English.”

Ref: p.295 ‘Witi Ihimaera: Interviewed by Selina Tusitala Marsh, pp.284-305 in Words Chosen Carefully: New Zealand Writers in Discussion pp.108-133, Ed. Siobhan Harvey. Cape Catley Ltd: Auckland 2010

My writing had become a Waitangi issue – Ihimaera

Again, in his interview with Selina Tusitala Marsh, Witi Ihimaera discusses the political context in which he wrote The Matriarch:

“…if I may keep pointing to the African connection, The Matriarch wouldn’t be the artifact it is had I not written it in conjunction with crucial political events occurring in New Zealand, namely the Springbok Tour. I was giving speeches in Wellington about apartheid and was banned from Parliament because of a particular protest I made there with writers James McNeish, Fiona Kidman and others. I intensely disliked the Muldoon Government and its repressive policies. Also, I’d only just returned from Australia where I had the good fortune to meet Cath Walker, Roberta Sykes and Mudrooroo. There, before bulldozers began leveling the ground for Australia’s national parliament in Canberra, I’d gone to the site with my Maori friend, Teremoana Pehimana, to sit with Aboriginal activists and mourn the desecration of that Aboriginal site. The point is that by the time I started to write The Matriarch I was in no mood for conciliation. My writing had become a Waitangi issue, and, in writing, I felt I had to find a different way of defining the democratic processes and their absolute failures.”

Ref: p.289 (emphases in blue bold mine) ‘Witi Ihimaera: Interviewed by Selina Tusitala Marsh, pp.284-305 in Words Chosen Carefully: New Zealand Writers in Discussion pp.108-133, Ed. Siobhan Harvey. Cape Catley Ltd: Auckland 2010

Writing within the New Zealand reality

Discussing the publishing scene in New Zealand with Selina Tusitala Marsh,  Witi Ihimaera has explained: “Insofar as writing is concerned, New Zealand writers accept the New Zealand reality because it’s their reality. Of course when I began writing that was my reality too. But when I thought about how I should describe the Maori condition, that meant having to contest the New Zealand reality! After all, it’s because of its imposition that Maori are the indigenous minority in this country.”

Ref: p.287 (emphases in blue bold mine) ‘Witi Ihimaera: Interviewed by Selina Tusitala Marsh, pp.284-305 in Words Chosen Carefully: New Zealand Writers in Discussion pp.108-133, Ed. Siobhan Harvey. Cape Catley Ltd: Auckland 2010

Witi Ihimaera on writing politically

“With my work, I try to interrogate myself as I write. Politically as a writer am I maintaining the politics of representation required of an indigenous practitioner? And within the work, is the politics there? In my case, I began to include chunks of political observation and this, I think, accounts for the subjective/objective kind of narrative that I’ve developed as part of my style. I don’t want to give just the story. I want to provide the subtext and context and ur-text as well.”
~ Witi Ihimaera

Ref: p.294 (emphases in blue bold mine) ‘Witi Ihimaera: Interviewed by Selina Tusitala Marsh, pp.284-305 in Words Chosen Carefully: New Zealand Writers in Discussion pp.108-133, Ed. Siobhan Harvey. Cape Catley Ltd: Auckland 2010

literature isn’t static – Ihimaera

In an interview with Witi Ihimaera that I’ve mentioned before, Selina Tusitala Marsh asked Witi about his rewriting projects (pp.288-299). Witi explains his rewriting of Pounamu, Pounamu, Tangi, and Whanau II, adding :

“Then there’s The Matriarch, the redux edition. I wanted to take a more considered look at it and try to turn it into a better book. But honestly, I don’t know what the fuss is about! In Maoridom we’ve numerous examples of meeting houses which have been rebuilt. I was simply taking my model from this fact and also that, for me, literature isn’t static.
I was once asked on BBC Hardtalk by Gavin Esler, ‘What can Maori culture give to the world?’ I think it’s all about a tribal democratic approach which enables all voices to be heard. It’s also about ensuring that the alternative voice, the subversive voice, the voice in opposition to the main discourse, is heard. It’s also about knowing that the Maori Story never stops.” (p.299)

Ref: (emphases in blue bold mine) ‘Witi Ihimaera: Interviewed by Selina Tusitala Marsh, pp.284-305 in Words Chosen Carefully: New Zealand Writers in Discussion pp.108-133, Ed. Siobhan Harvey. Cape Catley Ltd: Auckland 2010

Writing glocal in NZ – Ihimaera

In an extensive interview with Witi Ihimaera, Selina Tusitala Marsh asked him about “the importance of maintaining the specific study of Maori and Pacific literature at New Zealand universities as opposed to having them subsumed into post-colonial or commonwealth literatures” (p.299). Witi replied:

“…it’s imperative that New Zealand’s priority should be to write not just the local but the ‘glocal’. Our New Zealand writers are actually very adept at writing the global. They set their work in London, New York, Paris or Rome. But I’m often shocked at the huge lack of writing which involves the Pacific, Australia and Asia, even though these areas are our closest neighbours.” (p.299)

Ref: (emphases in blue bold mine) ‘Witi Ihimaera: Interviewed by Selina Tusitala Marsh, pp.284-305 in Words Chosen Carefully: New Zealand Writers in Discussion pp.108-133, Ed. Siobhan Harvey. Cape Catley Ltd: Auckland 2010

Critical work on Witi Ihimaera’s oeuvre – a basic search

Recognition, Political and Interpersonal: Gay Tribalism in Witi Ihimaera‘s The Uncle’s Story Tan, Yanwei. MFS: Modern Fiction Studies60 (2014 Summer): 366-386.

Toward Transpacific Ecopoetics: Three Indigenous Texts Huang, Hsinya. Comparative Literature Studies50.1 (2013): 120-147.

The State of the Nation’s Narratives Ihimaera, Witi. In Storytelling: Critical and Creative Approaches, edited by Shaw, Jan, Kelly, Philippa, Semler, L E, 15-27. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Whale Rider: The Re-Enactment of Myth and the Empowerment of Women Dodd, Kevin V. Journal of Religion and Film16.2 (2012 Oct): 26 pages.

Metaphor as Argument: A Stylistic Genre-Based Approach Badran, Dany. Language and Literature: Journal of the Poetics and Linguistics Association21.2 (2012 May): 119-135.

Sacred Travelers: Diasporic Narratives of Pacific Literature Suzuki, Erin Maya. U of California, Los Angeles, 2012 Apr. DA3463912.

‘The Continuum of the World Corrected’: Allegorical Form and (Trans)National Communities in the Historical Fiction of Witi Ihimaera Dalley, Hamish. CLIO: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History41.2(2012 Spring): 221-244.

Psychological Trauma: Representations of Gay Male Sexuality in Māori and Pākehā New Zealand Literature Fox, Alistair. In Sexuality and Contemporary Literature, edited by Gwynne, Joel, Poon, Angelia, 147-167. Amherst, NY: Cambria, 2012.

From Noble Savage to Brave New Warrior? Constructions of a Maori Tradition of Warfare Moura-Koçoglu, Michaela. In Literature for Our Times: Postcolonial Studies in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Ashcroft, Bill, Mendis, Ranjini, McGonegal, Julie, Mukherjee, Arun, Giroux, Henry A, 369-382. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2012. 

From Body Snatchers to Mind Snatchers: Indigenous Science Fiction, Postcolonialism, and Aotearoa/New Zealand History Alessio, Dominic. Journal of Postcolonial Writing47.3 (2011 July): 257-269. 

The Lonely and the Alone: The Poetics of Isolation in New Zealand Fiction D’Cruz, Doreen; Ross, John C. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2011.

Striding Both Worlds: Witi Ihimaera and New Zealand’s Literary Traditions Kennedy, Melissa. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2011.

Hybridity and Indigeneity in Contemporary Maori Litterature of Aotearoa/New Zealand: Witi Ihimaera Fox, Alistair. In Littératures d’aujourd’hui: Contemporain, innovation, partages culturels, politique, théorie littéraire: Domaines européen, latino-américain, francophone et anglophone, edited by Bessière, Jean, 91-101. Paris, France: Honoré Champion, 2011.

‘I Am Not a Slave … I Will Be Worthy of My Native Land’: Italian Melodrama as Resistance Strategy in Witi Ihimaera‘s Work Della Valle, Paola. In Experiences of Freedom in Postcolonial Literatures and Cultures, edited by Oboe, Annalisa, Bassi, Shaul, 103-114. London, England: Routledge, 2011.

What the Whales Would Tell Us: Cetacean Communication in Novels by Witi Ihimaera, Linda Hogan, Zakes Mda, and Amitav Ghosh Steinzvand, Jonathan. In Postcolonial Ecologies: Literatures of the Environment, edited by DeLoughrey, Elizabeth, Handley, George B, 182-199. Oxford, England: Oxford UP, 2011.

Terms of Ambivalence: Cultural Politics and Symbolic Exchange Prentice, Chris. Australian Literary Studies25.4 (2010 Nov): 33-54.

Maori Cowboys, Maori Indians Somerville, Alice Te Punga. American Quarterly62.3 (2010 Sept): 663-685.

[Crossing Mythical Boundaries and Homing in Witi Ihimaera‘s The Whale Rider] Cha, Heejung. Journal of English Language and Literature/Yǒngǒ Yǒngmunhak56.2 (2010): 277-299.

Think Local Sell Global: Magical Realism, The Whale Rider, and the Market Eckstein, Lars. In Commodifying (Post)Colonialism: Othering, Reification, Commodification and the New Literatures and Cultures in English, edited by Emig, Rainer, Lindner, Oliver, 93-107. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2010.

Representations of Childhood in the Stories of Katherine Mansfield and Witi Ihimaera Oettli-Van Delden, Simone. In Antipodean Childhoods: Growing Up in Australia and New Zealand, edited by Ramsey-Kurz, Helga, Ratheiser, Ulla, 145-160. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2010.

Voice from the Tangata Whenua: An Exploration of Conceptual Metaphoricity in Witi Ihimaera‘s Whanau Degani, Marta. In Drops of Light Coalescing: Studies for Maria Teresa Bindella, edited by Riem Natale, Antonella, Righetti, Angelo, 159-171. Udine, Italy: Forum, 2010.

Nostalgia and Hierarchy in Witi Ihimaera‘s Early Short Stories Andersson, Ulrika. In Antipodean Childhoods: Growing Up in Australia and New Zealand, edited by Ramsey-Kurz, Helga, Ratheiser, Ulla, 161-170. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2010.

Literature as Resistance in the Maori Renaissance: Patricia Grace, Witi Ihimaera, Alan Duff Wilson, Janet. Anglistik20.1 (2009 Mar): 173-186.

Inside the Text: The Private Side of Maori Writing Kennedy, Melissa. Journal of Postcolonial Writing45.1 (2009 Mar): 61-69.

Rootedness and Mobility in International Indigenous Literatures Schacht, Miriam Helga. U of Texas, Austin, 2009 Jan. DA3315291.

Manifestation of Self and/or Tribal Identity? Māori Writing in the Global Maelstrom Moura-Koçoğlu, Michaela. In Transcultural English Studies: Theories, Fictions, Realities, edited by Schulze-Engler, Frank, Helff, Sissy, Perner, Claudia, Vogt-William, Christine, 221-231. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2009.

Exclusion and Revolt in Witi Ihimaera‘s Whale Rider Visser, Irene. Commonwealth Essays and Studies30.2 (2008 Spring): 63-73.

In the Belly of the Canoe with Ihimaera, Hulme and Gorodé: The Waka as a Locus of Hybridity Ramsay, Raylene. International Journal of Francophone Studies11.4 (2008): 559-579.

‘Are You for Real?’: Witi Ihimaera‘s Eidolon Camouflage Kennedy, Melissa. Moving Worlds: A Journal of Transcultural Writings8.2 (2008): 107-116.

Benign Xenophobia? The Testimony of Maori Literature Panny, Judith Dell. In Embracing the Other: Addressing Xenophobia in the New Literatures in English, edited by Mohr, Dunja M, 37-47. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2008.

Native Stages: The Revision of History in Witi Ihimaera‘s Woman Far Walking Calleja, Paloma Fresno. In Representing Minorities: Studies in Literature and Criticism, edited by Touaf, Larbi, Boutkhil, Soumia, 108-113. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.

The Interplay of the Local and the Global in Witi Ihimaera‘s Revisions Heim, Otto. Journal of Postcolonial Writing43.3 (2007 Dec): 310-322.

Maoritangta in Whale Rider and Once Were Warriors: A Problematic Rebirth through Female Leaders De Souza, Pascale. Studies in Australasian Cinema1.1 (2007): 15-27

Narrating the Feminine Nation: The Coming-of-Age Girl in Contemporary New Zealand Cinema Wiles, Mary M. In Youth Culture in Global Cinema, edited by Shary, Timothy, Seibel, Alexandra, 175-188. Austin, TX: U of Texas P, 2007.

Gender, Race, Feminism, and the International Girl Hero: The Unremarkable U.S. Popular Press Reception of Bend It Like Beckham and Whale Rider Projansky, Sarah. In Youth Culture in Global Cinema, edited by Shary, Timothy, Seibel, Alexandra, 189-206. Austin, TX: U of Texas P, 2007.

Cultural Rhetoric in Coming-Out Narratives: Witi Ihimaera‘s The Uncle’s Story Tawake, Sandra. World Englishes: Journal of English as an International and Intranational Language25.3-4 (2006 Aug-Nov): 373-380.

The Symbolic Function of the Operatic Allusions in Witi Ihimaera‘s The Dream Swimmer Fox, Alistair. Journal of Postcolonial Writing42.1 (2006 May): 4-17.

Riding the Whale? Postcolonialism and Globalization in Whale Rider Prentice, Chris. In Global Fissures: Postcolonial Fusions, edited by Joseph, Clara A B, Wilson, Janet, 247-267. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2006.

Spaze: Void States and the Mother-Child Relationship in The Matriarch, The Dream Swimmer, Cousins and Baby No-Eyes Crawford, Jen. Kunapipi: Journal of Postcolonial Writing27.2 (2005): 268-275.

A Man’s ‘True Face’: Concealing/Revealing Masculinities in Novels by Alan Duff andWiti Ihimaera Roussos, Timotheos. Philament5 (2005 Jan): (no pagination).

The Italian Myth of Galileo in New Zealand Opera Manai, Franco; Hanna, Kirsten. In New Zealand and Europe: Connections and Comparisons, edited by Luciano, Bernadette, Mayes, David G, 263-276. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2005.

Beyond Boundaries: Centre/Periphery Discourse in Oe Kenzaburō’s Dojidai gemu &Witi Ihimaera‘s The Matriarch Isherwood, Christopher. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies5.2 (2003 Dec): 115-144.

Holy Sea-Cow Murdoch, Claire. Landfall: New Zealand Arts and Letters206 (2003 Nov): 97-105.

Whale Tale: New Zealand’s Niki Caro Brings Maori Legend to Life Garcia, Maria. Film Journal International106.6 (2003 June): 16-18.

A Maori Writer in Two Worlds Meklin, Margaret. Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide10.1 (2003 Jan-Feb): 30-32.

Maori Literature in English: An Introduction Simms, Norman. In Twayne Companion to Contemporary World Literature: From the Editors of World Literature Today, I: Parts 1-5; II: Parts 6-8, Appendices, Index, edited by Genova, Pamela A, 818-824. New York, NY: Twayne–Thomson Gale, 2003.

Masculinity & Desire: Rewriting the Polynesian Body Ihimaera, Witi. In Joseph Keene Chadwick: Interventions and Continuities in Irish and Gay Studies, edited by Rieder, John, O’Mealy, Joseph H, Wayne, Valerie, 122-131. Honolulu, HI: College of Languages, Linguistics and Literature, University of Hawaii, 2002.

Rewriting or Writing Back? Witi Ihimaera‘s Dear Miss Mansfield Glage, Liselotte. In Crabtracks: Progress and Process in Teaching the New Literatures in English, edited by Collier, Gordon, Schulze-Engler, Frank, 321-329. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2002.

Traditions of Guardianship in Maori Literature Heim, Otto. In Colonies, Missions, Cultures in the English Speaking World: General and Comparative Studies, edited by Stilz, Gerhard, 299-306. Tübingen, Germany: Stauffenburg, 2001.

Constructing the Present: Insider/Outsider Perspective in Fiction by Figiel, Pule andIhimaera Tawake, Sandra. SPAN: Journal of the South Pacific Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies50-51 (2000 Apr-Oct): 1-11.

Contemporary Maori Cultural Practice-from Biculturalism towards a Glocal Culture Riemenschneider, Dieter. Journal of New Zealand Literature18-19 (2000-2001): 139-160.

‘The Singing Word’: Witi Ihimaera Interviewed by Juniper Ellis Ellis, Juniper. Journal of Commonwealth Literature34.1 (1999): 169-182.

Intelligibility and Meaningfulness in Multicultural Literature in English (Excerpts) Dasenbrock, Reed Way. In Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior: A Casebook, edited by Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia, 159-169. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 1999.

Katherine Mansfield and Witi Ihimaera: A Typology of Reception Baumann, Uwe. In Intercultural Encounters-Studies in English Literatures, edited by Antor, Heinz, Cope, Kevin L, 563-588. Heidelberg, Germany: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, 1999.

The Status of ‘Fantasy’ in Maori Literature in English: The Case of Witi Ihimaera Durix, Jean-Pierre. European Journal of English Studies2.1 (1998 Apr): 11-26.

And Then There’s Us: A Maori Perspective Ihimaera, Witi. Poetica: An International Journal of Linguistic-Literary Studies50 (1998): 195-207.

Spiritcarvers: Interviews with Eighteen Writers from New Zealand Sarti, Antonella; Evans, Christopher Bennet (foreword). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 1998.

Nationalism vs. Internationalism? Witi Ihimaera‘s The Matriarch and Critical Abjection Prentice, Christine. In Nationalism vs. Internationalism: (Inter)National Dimensions of Literatures in English, edited by Zach, Wolfgang, Goodwin, Ken L, 549-555. Tübingen, Germany: Stauffenburg, 1996.

Mythic Grandeur or Pastoral Naiveté in Tangi by Witi Ihimaera Simms, Norman. Recovering Literature: A Journal of Contextualist Criticism20 (1994): 5-22.

Disappearance through Integration: Three Maori Writers Retaliate Morrow, Patrick D. Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies1.1 (1993 Fall): 92-99.

Why Novels? Why Short Stories? A Note on the Use of Genres in the Works of Witi Ihimaera and Albert Wendt Isernhagen, Hartwig. Commonwealth Essays and Studies16.2 (1993 Spring): 34-37.

A View of Strategies of Assimilation and Resistance in Witi Ihimaera‘s Dear Miss Mansfield Potter, Tiffany. World Literature Written in English33-34.2-1 (1993-1994): 58-74.

A Rhetoric of Sentiment: Thoughts on Maori Writing with Reference to the Short-Stories of Witi Ihimaera Sharrad, Paul. In New Zealand Literature Today, edited by Dhawan, R K, Tonetto, Walter, 60-72. New Delhi: Indian Soc. for Commonwealth Studies, 1993.

Intercultural Exchange between Ethnic Minority and English Language Majority: The Writing of Jack Davis and Witi Ihimaera Riemenschneider, Dieter. In Imagination and the Creative Impulse in the New Literatures in English, edited by Bindella, M T, Davis, G V, 271-280. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1993.

Listening to One’s Ancestors: An Interview with Witi Ihimaera Sharrad, Paul. Australian and New Zealand Studies in Canada8 (1992 Dec): 97-105.

Disappearance through Integration: Three Maori Writers Retaliate Morrow, Patrick D. In Selected Essays from the International Conference on Word and World of Discovery, edited by Garmon, Gerald, 100-107. Carrollton, GA: Dept. of English, West Georgia Coll, 1992.

Images of Italy in Maori and Pakeha Writing: Problems of Culture, Ideology and Theory Lauder, Hugh. In Bologna, la cultura italiana e le letterature straniere moderne, I-III, edited by Fortunati, Vita, Petroni, Liano, I: 241-55. Ravenna: Longo, 1992.

Interview with Witi Ihimaera Williams, Mark. Landfall: New Zealand Arts and Letters45.3 [179] (1991 Sept): 281-297.

A Maori Perspective Ihimaera, Witi. Journal of New Zealand Literature9 (1991): 53-54.

Tickling History: Maurice Shadbolt and the New Zealand Wars Crane, Ralph J. Journal of New Zealand Literature9 (1991): 59-70.

Glimpses of Childhood Albinski, Nan Bowman. In International Literature in English: Essays on the Major Writers, edited by Ross, Robert L, 39-51. New York: Garland, 1991.

Aspects of Contemporary Māori Writing in English Arvidson, Ken. In Dirty Silence: Aspects of Language and Literature in New Zealand, edited by McGregor, Graham, Williams, Mark, Harlow, Ray, 117-128. Auckland: Oxford UP, 1991.

Textual Strategies of Identity Formation in Witi Ihimaera‘s Fiction Jannetta, Armando E. Commonwealth Essays and Studies12.2 (1990 Spring): 17-28.

‘It All Depends on What Story You Hear’: Historiographic Metafiction and Colin Johnson’s Dr. Wooreddy’s Prescription for Enduring the Ending of the World and Witi Ihimaera‘s The Matriarch Tompkins, Joanne. MFS: Modern Fiction Studies36.4 (1990 Winter): 483-498.

The New Zealand Land Wars in Novels by Shadbolt and Ihimaera Wattie, Nelson. In Crisis and Creativity in the New Literatures in English: Cross/Cultures, edited by Davis, Geoffrey V, Maes-Jelinek, Hena, 433-447. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1990.

Tangi: A Window on Maori Life Collellmir, Dolors. BELLS: Barcelona English Language and Literature Studies1 (1989): 53-60.

Witi Ihimaera‘s Fiction: From Indigenous Myth to Late Modernist City Night? Isernhagen, Hartwig. World Literature Written in English24.1 (1984 Summer): 189-199.

The Blending of Traditions: Witi Ihaimaera’s Contribution to New Zealand Literature Martin, Murray S. International Fiction Review10.1 (1983 Winter): 53-55.

Time in Witi Ihimaera‘s ‘Tangi’ Durix, Jean-Pierre. Journal of New Zealand Literature1 (1983): 101-114.

All Any Man with a Club Can Do: Albert Wendt and Witi Ihimaera Nightingale, Peggy. In Myth and Metaphor, edited by Sellick, Robert, 53-70. Adelaide: Centre for Research in the New Literatures in Eng, 1982.

Pakeha and Maori behind the Tattooed Face: The Emergence of a Polynesian Voice in New Zealand Fiction Hughes, Shaun F D. MFS: Modern Fiction Studies27.1 (1981 Spring): 13-29.

Witi Ihimaera, The New Net Goes Fishing Sharkey, Michael. New Literature Review9 ((1981)): 60-64.

Chinua Achebe and Witi Ihimaera Rhodes, H Winston. Literary Half-Yearly21.1 (1980): 104-111.

The Community as Protagonist in the Novels of Chinua Achebe and Witi Ihimaera Wattie, Nelson. In Individual and Community in Commonwealth Literature, edited by Massa, Daniel, 69-74. Msida: U of Malta P, 1979.

Maori Literature in English: Prose Writers, Part Two: Witi Ihimaera Simms, Norman. Pacific Quarterly (Moana): An International Review of Arts and Ideas3(1978): 336-348.

Maori Literature in English: An Introduction Simms, Norman. World Literature Today: A Literary Quarterly of the University of Oklahoma52 (1978): 223-228.

Lost Our Birthright Forever: The Maori Writer’s Re-Invention of New Zealand James, Trevor. SPAN: Journal of the South Pacific Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies24 (1987 Apr.): 107-121.


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